What is a hysterectomy?
Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure performed on women and it involves the extirpation of the (uterus) womb. The medical reasons to why hysterectomy is performed are:
How is hysterectomy performed?
The most common hysterectomy was previously performed by an incision through the abdomen (also referred to as abdominal hysterectomy). Now most surgeries make use of laparoscopic assisted or vaginal hysterectomies – minimally invasive procedure performed through the vagina rather than through the abdomen. This rather new procedure is quicker and the woman has a more speedy recovery.
What are the types of hysterectomies?
Total abdominal hysterectomy - the most common type of hysterectomy.
During a total abdominal hysterectomy, the doctor removes the uterus, including the cervix. The scar may be horizontal or vertical, depending on the reason the procedure is performed, and the size of the area being treated.
A woman cannot bear children after this procedure, so it is not performed on women of childbearing age unless there is a serious condition, such as cancer.
Vaginal hysterectomy - the uterus is removed through the vagina.
The vaginal hysterectomy is performed in cases of uterine prolapse, endometrial hyperplasia, or cervical dysplasia. These are conditions in which the uterus is not too large, and in which the whole abdomen does not require examination using a more extensive surgical procedure. Women who have not had children may not have a large enough vaginal canal for this type of procedure. In general, laparoscopic vaginal hysterectomy is more expensive and has higher complication rates than abdominal hysterectomy.
Laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) - similar to the vaginal hysterectomy
This procedure involves the use of a laparoscope – allowing the surgeon to carefully examine the upper abdomen during surgery. It is usually recommended in endometrial cancer or removal of the ovaries. This procedure is also prone to complications, requiring a longer time to perform, and longer hospital stays.
Supracervical hysterectomy – removal of the uterus while sparing the cervix
The cervix is the area that forms the very bottom of the uterus, and sits at the very end of the vaginal canal. In some cases the cervix is left in place, such as some cases of severe endometriosis. It is a simpler procedure compared to the ones described above and requires less time to perform. It may give some added support of the vagina, decreasing the risk for vaginal prolapse.
Laparoscopic supra cervical hysterectomy – similar to LAVH procedure
Cautery is commonly used to cut the cervix off at the cervical stump, and the tissue is all removed through a laparoscopic tool. Recovery is quite fast.
Radical hysterectomy - removing the uterus and tissues surrounding the uterus, removal of the upper vagina
Radical hysterectomy is most commonly performed for early cervical cancer. There are more complications with radical hysterectomy compared to abdominal hysterectomy. These include injury to the bowels and urinary system.
Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries or Fallopian tubes)
The removal of the ovaries is called Oophorectomy
Salpingo-oophorectomy is the removal of the ovary and its adjacent Fallopian tube. These are two procedures which are performed for:
The complications of any type of hysterectomy include infection, pain, and bleeding in the surgical area. An abdominal hysterectomy has a higher rate of post-operative infection and pain than does a vaginal hysterectomy.
Alternatives to hysterectomy
The costs of Hysterectomy Abroad
In the USA, the cheapest hysterectomy cost an average of $3,000, while the most expensive type of laparoscopic hysterectomy cost an average of $9,000, abdominal hysterectomies cost around $6,600 and DaVinci robotic surgery Hysterectomy $9,200 .
Laparoscopic hysterectomy procedure in Mexico costs are of $2400 - $5200. In Indian health care centers, the hysterectomy procedure costs $2700-$3200, depending on the type of surgery. Surgery for Hysterectomy in Costa Rica can be in the range of $5200-$6000.
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