What is Bone Marrow and Hematopoietic Stem Cell?
Bone marrow is a soft; sponge like tissue located inside the bone. It contains cells termed hematopoietic or blood making stem cells.
Hematopoietic stem cells may divide to generate more blood making stem cells or develop to create “red blood cells-erythrocytes”, “white blood cells-leukocytes” and “thrombocytes” that join blood circulation. Most of hematopoietic stem cells are found in bone marrow however there are also traces of them in the umbilical cord and blood.
Cells obtained from any of these locations may be used for transplant.
What is Bone Marrow Transplant?
Bone marrow transplant and peripheric blood stem cell transplant is the healing of damaged stem cells using high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
There are three types of transplant:
Autologous transplant: Transplant from patients own stem cells.
Syngeneic transplant: Transplant by acquiring stem cells from identical twins.
Allogeneic transplant: Transplant by acquiring stem cells from siblings or parents. A non-related donor may also be used if suitable.
How is Bone Marrow Transplant Performed?
Transplant from own body fundamentally requires the treatment of illness. For this reason, Patient will be treated in accordance with a method specified by physicians. In the next stage, stem cells are collected and frozen with the help of certain medication.
The dose of medication must be increased in these types of patients. On average patient is given high doses of medication for a week following the collection of healthy stem cells. Healthy hidden stem cells are given back to the patient following high dose of medication treatment. This approach allows the self-repair of stem cells damaged during treatment.
How is Bone Marrow Obtained for Transplant?
Stem cells used in bone marrow transplant are obtained from a liquid centre called marrow. On general terms the procedure of obtaining bone marrow, usually called “harvesting”, is similar in al three types of bone marrow transplant (autologous, allogeneic, syngeneic). During the procedure the donor is either given a sedative general anaesthesia or local anaesthesia resulting in numbness below the waist.
Needles are inserted into the bone marrow of the pelvic bone for extraction. Marrow harvesting takes about one hour.
Harvested bone marrow is processed to remove traces of bone and blood. A preservative may be added to the harvested bone marrow and later frozen to keep the stem cells ready until needed. This method is known as cryopreservation. Stem cells may be kept for long years using the cryopreservation method.
Diseases Treatable with Bone Marrow Transplant
Initial Assessment at Anadolu
Initial assessment begins with transplant physician meeting at the bone marrow transplant outpatient clinic. This meeting will involve:
Transplant coordinator nurse giving the patient an orientation tour of the bone marrow transplant department.
The following steps will commence once the form is signed:
1. Forward Planning
Living in Istanbul or Kocaeli: Patient will be briefed on the need to live somewhere near to the hospital up to 1- 4 months following the transplant. Transplant team will help to make necessary arrangements.
2. Preparing for Transplant
Examination: Outpatient tests will be performed for 1-2 weeks to determine overall medical condition; additional examinations like bone marrow aspiration, lung x-ray ,
Bone marrow mobilisation procedure will span a 7 to 20 day period depending on the regime.
3. Preparation Regime
4. Stem Cell Transplant
Whether autologus or allogeneic all frozen bone marrow or perigherl stem cell collected from the donor will be thawed beside the patient following necessary preparations and administered intravenously through the central catheter.
Bone marrow or perigherl stem cell can be collected transplant dry from donor and given to the pztrent unfrozen. Donor will begin mobilisation regime prior to the transplantation. Bone marrow will be collected on the day of transplantation and administered intravenously without getting frozen.
5. Waiting for Engraftment
6. Post-Engraftment Healing
7. Post-Healing Long Term Monitoring
Patients are also called to participate a vaccination programme at 12 and 24 months after engraftment.
At Anadolu Medical Center’s modern and tranquil atmosphere our internationally renowned and experienced team prepares personalized treatments for our patients, which makes a difference to them and their families.
Our department employs state-of-the art diagnostic and treatment technology to surgically treat cardiovascular and lung diseases. Its patients range from newborns to adults.