Gynecological Cancer Treatment at IEO in Milan, Italy
The IEO Gynecological Cancer Program is an integrated platform of comprehensive multidisciplinary services for diagnosis, treatment and support of all patients with gynecological malignancies at every steps of their disease. It is aimed to provide a unique example of clinical care focused on prevention, excellence in care, high quality clinical researches, in order to improve their prognosis and quality of life.
The Gynecological Program
The treatment of gynecological cancers is based on specific cases and diagnosis. Surgery could be applied with radiation therapy and pharmacological treatment, as well as conservative therapy in specific situation (e.g. in the rare cases of endometrial cancer in young patients desiring pregnancy). Gynecological Cancer Treatment Program consists of:
Surgery. Surgical treatment could be suggested in particular cases and, for example, it is essential in the ovarian pathology management. Depending on the type and spread of the tumor, surgery can be performed through laparoscopy or traditional laparotomy, and may have purposes of diagnosis, staging, cytoreduction or debulking.
The division of Gynecologic Surgery at IEO is recognized as a premier national referral center for the most complex surgically cases. Moreover, the division of Gynecology has pioneered the use of minimally-invasive robotic surgery in the treatment of cervical cancer and endometrial cancer.
Minimally-invasive surgery. In cases in which the tumor seems to be limited to the ovary, patients can be referred to minimally invasive surgical treatment. At the IEO, the majority of these surgeries are performed with the help of the Da Vinci robotic system. Robotic surgery provides patients with all the now well-known and validated advantages of the conventional minimally-invasive approach, that also include less intra-operative blood loss and a shorter hospital stay, both associated with a better quality of life and cosmetic result, due to the presence of small cutaneous scars.
When an invasive carcinoma is diagnosed, treatment options vary according to the extent of the invasion and the extension of the tumor. The excision of the alteration through laser conization can be considered as treatment for a minimally-invasive carcinoma, especially in cases of squamous cell carcinoma, even if in some cases the surgical evaluation of the lymph nodes must be added.
Pharmacological treatments. The pharmacological treatments that is chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy and/or the so called receptor medications, depend on the histological examination related to surgery. Many patients with ovarian cancer need chemotherapy after surgery. In general, paclitaxel and platinum are the most frequently-used drugs. The majority of patients receiving chemotherapy for ovarian cancer have an excellent quality of life.
Conservative treatment. In the rare cases of endometrial cancer in young patients desiring pregnancy, it is possible to propose a conservative treatment that allows for the preservation of the uterus, in the presence of favorable conditions. Conservative therapy is based on the use of progestin-based hormonal therapy that aims to restore normality in the endometrium. Fundamental to this process is a close follow-up with imaging examinations and periodic hysteroscopic evaluations.
Radiotherapy. Radiotherapy on the operated gynecological cases could be normal procedure in the case of cervical cancer or partial resection for cancer. It is defined as "complementary" because it completes surgery and reduces the risk of disease recurrence. Physicians at the IEO have developed and validated the most widely used and effective techniques in surgical care through integration with radiotherapy and pharmacology procedures adopted today worldwide.
IEO offers a comprehensive program for the prevention, determining risk factors, early detection, as well as surgical and medical treatment with the latest technology available. It is performed at:
The program is performed by:
*The patient has the possibility to choose the referent surgeon.
Required Time and Plan
The average hospitalization time is 6 nights; the discharge is expected on the 7th day in the morning. Nevertheless, IEO suggests staying 5 additional days in Milan in case if it will be required to make additional tests and procedures.
Standard Services for the Patient:
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