Obesity is a multifactorial epidemic that involves genetic, physiological, environmental and social factors. The adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which regulates production of various hormones involved on metabolism, homeostasis of individual and on same time, human reproduction.
Nutrition is on of the determinants for a good health status, physical and mental performance of individual´s productivity. Obesity is the result of an imbalance of nutrition between intake and energetic expenditure. This imbalance usually is a consequence of diets with high energy (calories), high in carbohydrates and fats, and also low fiber. The prevalence of obesity increase worldwide, including Mexico. It is characterized by an excess in the storage of lipids (fats)
In reproductive matters, estrogens and progesterone, sex steroid produced during menstrual cycle, plays a role as regulator in the reproductive process of women, also in the body´s energy balance and are mediators in the dietary behavior. During the phases of menstrual cycle many changes in the pattern of food consumption are recorded due the secretion of these hormones. This pattern of consumption decrease during ovulating when estrogens levels are higher and progesterone are lower, and increase after ovulation when levels of progesterone are predominant.
Appetite control is a highly complex behaviour that is not exclusively regulated by turning on and off signals originating from certain hormones. But by a much more complex system influenced by the individual´s will. Among the appetite inhibiting signals we can mention the increase in concentrations of leptin, insulin, glucose, peptidyy similar to glucagon peptid1, oxintomoduline and decrease of ghreline.
Serotonin is known to be a neurotransmitter of a great importance in the biological system related to eating. It is involved in the effects of the nutritional composition of the diet on brain function and on the control of eating patterns as well as the urge to eat. Serotonin is involved in both physical symptoms and changes of humor that occur during the menstrual cycle nd is considered the mediating factor that relates appetite to humor. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is defined as a sever form of premenstrual syndrome . it has been suggested that craving for certain food products such as carbohydrates are consumed to increase serotonin levels in the brain and may even be an adaptive mechanism to compensate fo the relative lack of serotonin a few days before the onset of menstrual flow. Eating carbohydrates is a form of self-medication to improve mood.
Obesity is known to carry various medical disorders throughout the life cycle of a person, it damages health by increasing the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2. Dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, even cancer. It affects psychological development with various personal and social repercussions, and it also has repercussions on female fertility.
There are several factors that determine weight gain in women: eating behavior, food consumption patterns, genetic background, age, the side effects of medications such as hormonal contraceptives and antidepressants, pregnancy,lactation, life style,etc
These factors alter the production of the hormones involved in reproductive cycle..Consequently obesity increase risk of infertility, polycystic ovary, preeclampsia, eclampsia, diabetes and obstetric difficulty at the delivery time. Obese women have three times more likely to infertility decrease against no obese women.
The function of the ovary must be evaluated, it is done through the production of ovules, fertilization rates and embryonic quality. Obese or overweight women have been observed to:
The endocrine functions of adipose tissue involve a few of hormonal signs which have control on metabolism. To alter this signs is a consequence of obesity, has metabolism alter and organs develop, affecting itself to reproduction organs.
Obesity affects the ovulation, mature of oocyte, grow of endometrium, uterine receptivity, implantation, embryonic quality, and high probability of misscarriage.
Considering that obesity is increasing by the years in our country, it is of vital important a new
design of prevention and treatment to decrease the incidence of obese patients to fertility clinics.
The weigh lose in consequence of a healthy diet and life style must be a starting treatment for overweight and obese women who goes to assisted reproduction clinics.
Here at IREGA, we have a team with specialized nutrition professional to help you achieve your goals of having a baby in the best and healthy conditions.
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