In a world that is plagued with moderate to severe medical conditions like multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, and type 1 diabetes, Mesenchymal stem cells therapy provides an alternative towards treatment of such medical conditions. It is definitely not easy to understand the treatment process or how Mesenchymal stem cells therapy really works but an insight into what MSC is and its morphology, and culturing will help determine the medical use of MSC.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent stromal cells also known as adult stem cells that are found primarily in the bone marrow. Some important and interesting facts that will enable the understanding of these stem cells are:
The Mesenchymal stem cells play an important role in the human body. The primary role of MSC's includes repair and maintenance of bone. It coordinates the repair response during bone fracture by recruiting various host cells as well as secretes matrix proteins and growth factors.
They are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that produce a beneficial effect on wound healing. MSC's have been used for the treatment of chronic wounds and have the ability to stimulate those healing processes that have been stalled.
Clinical and in vivo studies have demonstrated administration of Mesenchymal stem cells to acute or diabetic wounds greatly improved wound closure. MSC was responsible for accelerating epithelialization (formation of granulation tissue), increase in the formation of granulation tissue, and increase in angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels).
The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells is immense and it can be considered as one of the leading age therapies of the near future. At present, these multipotent stem cells have been used in clinical trials as well as therapies for certain medical conditions and disorders. The success of MSC therapies is regarded as one of the highest in the field of medical science. Some of the existing and potential applications of the multipotent stromal cells are:
Myocardial infarction (MI) is also known as a heart attack and it occurs only when there is no blood flow to the heart or a part of the heart. This causes damage to the heart muscle and leads to a heart attack. Cardiac transfer of adult Mesenchymal stem cells has the ability to produce a favorable impact on the tissue perfusion as well as the contractile performance of an infracted heart. Modern imaging techniques have also revealed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have the capability to significantly improve left ventricular function. As a part of the treatment, MSC’s are implanted following which patients can experience improvement in their cardiac functioning.
Stem cells transplants have existed for years and now MSC transplantation is being carried out successfully in patients suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) while Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons present in the spinal cord and brain. They are being used for the treatment of such neurological disorders as they are known to possess immunomodulating properties that induce suppression of different immune cell populations. Scientists have revealed that in CNS degenerative conditions like multiple sclerosis Mesenchymal stem cell transplants will aid in the production of substances that can support the recovery or survival of damaged neurons.
Treatment of severe forms of human diseases like cancer is almost a matter of reality now thanks to the Mesenchymal stem cells. These cells have suddenly emerged as one of the most promising anti-cancer agents. MSC possess intrinsic tumor-trophic migratory properties and this enables them in delivering a targeted and effective therapy to metastatic disease and isolated tumors. They contain properties like pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and angiogenic, which provides them with the ability to target different types of cancer including breast cancer.
Mesenchymal stem cells therapy is still in its nascent stage and the future holds immense promise. There are have been breakthrough discoveries recently in engineering Mesenchymal stem cells and this makes it a perfect source for a variety of cell therapies in regenerative medicine. It's adaptability to an exposed environment makes it an impressive alternative for different and severe disease treatment.
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